Dam of Lipno lake, view from regulation room R 110 kV Tunel of sloping cargo lift Room of caps View at cover of Francis´s turbine Front side of underground cavern, rock massive Underground hall of electric plant, two generators with output 2 x 60 MW, overall view from crane Hydro plant Lipno

  ČEZ a.s., logo
Address :
ČEZ, a. s.
Hydro plant
Branch Lipno
Lipno nad Vltavou
382 78

  Hydro plant Lipno, dam of Lipno lake, view from regulation room R 110 kV, photo Lubor Mrázek
Telephone :
+420 380 746 621
+420 380 736 191

Fax :
+420 380 746 622

Manager operator :
Ing. Bedřich Kučera

E-mail :

Situation :
Flat area of Šumava above Lipno pass offered itself already a time ago to be used for Vltavy hydraulic purposes. Far off the pass was closing river at lake and when this pass was broken through due to geological changes, river excavated mighty rapids in whole valley close to today´s "Čertova wall". These rapids between Lipno and Vyšší Brod were 12 km long and Vltava declines here 160 m. This condition asked to be used for an energy utilization.

Hydro plant Lipno, room of stoppers: Andreas Buchner
Created with the financial support of the PHARE CBC and the firm Ipix.

Past :
  Hydro plant Lipno

In past the floods were coming almost with year´s regularit. These floods caused major damages and that is why were people finding solution to stop it. One of possibilities was construction of interception dams. First ideas about this solution appeared in beginning of 19. Century, first study comes from 1892. Then draft counted with construction of reservoirs at Frymburk and Želnava. In 1931 was processed another study, which projected location of reservoir in area behind today´s dam. This study was further processed and improved, what led in 1951 into creation of general plan of aquatic work Lipno. In that time was geological research in progress, building site was ensured and construction itself slowly started.

Construction :
Construction was divided into several parts: dam, aquatic center, industrial duct into paper processing factory, road, building site Lipno, Vyšší Brod, Slupečná and Lipno II. Building of hydro plant consisted of inlet object, waste tunnel, underground with sloping cargo lift and regulation room with facility. Building of Lipno II consisted of dam and hydro plant.

Hydro plant Lipno, arrangement of plant, painting

Senzitive map of hydro plant Lipno I.

Original solution of aquatic work Lipno with power plant installed under ground cavern in depth of 160 m brought during its construction lots of problems. Shortage of specialised profession, exhausting work in caissons, breaking of granite massif, which was mostly above cavern disturbed by kaolin insoles, creation of 220 m long tunnel under slope of 45° and waste tunnel to Vyšší Brod, long 3,6 km, all these and number of other problems were solved during construction. After finishing montage technologies, necessary tests and measurements was on August 13 1959 came to working first set, TG 2, set TG 1 started working on January 5 1960.

Hydro plant Lipno, view at covering of Francis turbine, photo Lubor Mrázek

Present :
Aquatic work consists since 1960 of two dams, artificial water reservoirs and two hydro plants called Lipno I and Lipno II. This work was built mostly for water and energy purposes. Aim of construction was utilization of 160m slopeas source of top and controllable electric energy, ensuring of minimal flow in Vltava under Lipno II at altitude 6 m3s-1, flood protection, influence of winter flow regime, improvement of hygienic conditions in Vltava under aquatic work, supply of water for village Loučovice and paper processing factory Loučovice and finally utilization of water reservoir Lipno I for recreation, fishing and naval transport.

Hydro plant Lipno, underground hall of power plant, two generators with output 2 x 60 MW, overall view from crane, photo Lubor Mrázek   Hydro plant Lipno, room of stoppers, photo Lubor Mrázek

Hydro plant Lipno I is equipped with two sets each with output 60 MW, which are located in underground cavern of area 60 x 22 x 38 m. Water is brought to turbines by inlet object and two press shafts of diameter 4,5 m into room of stoppers. These stoppers bring water through 24 control blades into the Francis turbines. Each of turbines is firmly conected with generator, which reaches during maximal flow 46 m3s-1 of water through turbine output 60 MW. Water which hands over its energy in turbine, outlets through waste tunnel of diameter 7,5 m and longitude 3,6 km to balance reservoir Lipno II at Vyšší Brod.

Hydro plant Lipno, view at one of two new stoppers, photo Lubor Mrázek   Hydro plant Lipno, view at one of two new stoppers, photo Lubor Mrázek

Dam, 296 m long and 25 m high, is on right side from two thirds of its lenght underground with caulk core, at left side is rest of dam made of concrete with two functional blocks. In these blocks are located two overflow fields, two outlets and extraction of industrial water. Dam is situated in river kilometer 329,543.

Dam reservoir is with its area 4 870 ha largest artificial lake in Czech Republic. It is located at latitude 726 above sea level and its volume is 306 mil. m3 of water. Its lenght is 48 km.

Hydro plant Lipno, tunnel of sloping cargo lift, photo Lubor Mrázek   Hydro plant Lipno, level leader of diameter 2.5 m conecting stopper with turbine, photo Lubor Mrázek

Aim of hydro plant II is to balance outlet from power plant Lipno I. It is flow hydro plant with one set, consisting of Kaplan turbine with maximal hold 20 m3s-1 and generator with output 1,5 MW. Level regulation ensures steady water outlet under aquatic work. Dam long 224 m and high 11,5 m lies at river kilometer 319,108 and again is combined, partly underground and partly concrete gravitional. In concrete part of dam are located two overflows, gravel culvert and three saturation fields. Water reservoir volume 1,6 mil m3, area 12,4 ha and its altitude is 558 above sea level.

Hydro plant Lipno, dam of Lipno lake, cut through sloping tunnel and cavern, photo Lubor Mrázek Hydro plant Lipno, dam of Lipno lake, cut through inlet and underground hydro center, photo Lubor Mrázek

All technologies in both plants are fully automated. Device is created to be operated from distance dispatch of ČEZ, a. s., Hydro plant in Štěchovice. Non stop working is monitored by one worker.

Hydro plant Lipno, pre regulation blade of Francis turbine, view from whorl, photo Lubor Mrázek   Hydro plant Lipno, front wall of underground cavern, rock massif, photo Lubor Mrázek

Since brought to working, all flood waves were transformed so no menace appeared to Vltava under Lipno. Through aquatic work flew maximally 92 m3s-1, what is maximal saturation of both turbines and also maximal porosity of river channel. Maximal inlet was during time of operating 400 m3s-1. From its opening has been plant Lipno I processing all water from reservoir. After revision of operating order from June 1996 has been water from dam outlet into original Vltava channel between Lipno I and Lipno II reconstructive flow 1,5 m3s-1.

Technical data :

In 40 years of working has been reached :
  production of electric
energy in GWh
working hours number of startings
TG 1 (generator No.1 - Lipno) 2 920 81 055 25 656
TG 2 (generator No.2 - Lipno) 2 898 81 319 27 760
ELI II (Vyšší Brod) 194 327 968 369

Other interesting technical data :
  Lipno I Lipno II
average inlet 14.04 m3s-1 14.5 m3s-1
hundred years flood 339 m3s-1 350 m3s-1
five hundred years flood 540 m3s-1  
milenium flood 650 m3s-1  
type of turbne Francis Kaplan
slope of turbine 161.65-149.149.35 m 10.0-4.0 m
revolutions 375 min-1 166.7 min-1


Further information :
Past of Lipno hydro plant
Click-sensitive map of hydro plant Lipno I.
Power Station in Vyšší Brod
Lipno nad Vltavou
Lipno dam

© Sdružení Oficiálního informačního systému Český Krumlov, 2000
Number of visitors this page since 10th August 2000 : TOPlist 0

Česká verzeDeutsche fassung