Chlum - common, in middle right is building of Kindergaten, photo: Jan Kříž
Settlement is a part of village Křemže

Vilage Křemže, 382 03

Altitude: 520 m

Number of inhabitants: 427


History of village :

The first mention of settlement comes from year 1279, when it is called already Chlum and since this time it doesn’t change its name. Chlum in ancient Czech language means hill with long saddle.

Symbol of Křemže, originally coat of arms of Jan Smil of Křemže
At the place of court No. 1 used to be fortress - site of the lords Dubenští of Chlum. From its origin in 13. Century was after many reconstruction changed into farm yard and it serves like farm till now.

Countryside to north east from Kleť belonged already since 13. Century to one of already since 13. Century to one of branches of lords Bavors of Strakonice - Dubenští of Chlum. Their seat was fortress at Chlum. They had in their coat of arms white arrow on red field turned by its spike to up left. In year 1318 divided brothers Jindřich and Smil their family possession. Jindřich remained at Chlum and Smil started settled his branch in Křemže, where he also built castle instead of old fortress . After him ruled in Křemže his sons Beneš and Přibík.
Fortress Chlum, view at former fortress from eastern side  
Přibík’s son Smil of Křemže greatly enlarged his possession. To it belonged: stone fortress (castle in Křemže with yard), villages Loučej, Chlumeček, Stupná, Bohouškovice, Mříčí, Slavče, Hradce, Lipí, Černý Dub, Vrábče, Zahorčice, Zaluží, Radostice, Čertyně, Kamenný Újezd, part of Rojšín and courts in Krásetín and Roudné. Smil’s son Jan, the most famous and also last lord at castle Křemže , obtained to his possession great estate (he pursued as bandit during Hussite wars) and became dangerous neighbor for Oldřich of Rožmberk. He captured in year 1439 Jan Smil by stratagem. Then he kept him in castle Krumlov in heavy prison till he made him in year 1444 to return all Křemže’s possession. Although Smil did so according to promised freedom, he was by Oldřich executed in Krumlov in 1447. After several years the sons of Smil claimed the reparation for father’s possession by disposable payment of money, which were divided among them, and that is how ended family of Křemže’s rulers. Castle in Křemže was by Oldřich of Rožmberk destroyed.

Coat of arms of the Častolars from Dlouhá Ves 
Sons of Oldřich of Rožmberk Jindřich and Jan sold in 1451 part of former Smil’s courts to brothers Přibík and Beneš of Chlum, who had to agree that they never reconstruct in Křemže a castle. They both ruled at fortress Chlum together, later in year 1457 got for several disagreements Přibík paid off and Beneš of Chlum became the lord of the whole manor of the Dubenští lords. Son of Beneš Přibík junior married with Markéta of Dlouhá Ves and because they had no posterity (his son died young shortly after Přibík’s death), obtained all possession to widow Markéta.
Křemže - St. Michaelš church, tombstone of Jan Albrecht Častolar of Dlouhá Ves from year 1560, photo: Lubor Mrázek  
She could not keep court for shares which had on it her brother Petr Oselský and relative Jan Častolar, both from Dlouhá Ves, and she sold Chlumec manor on 4. April 1547 to Jan Častolar of Dlouhá Ves. This is the end of lords Dubenští at Chlum. Now comes reign of Častolars family.

Coat of arms of the Dubenští - winged arrow - was in Chlum manor replaced by symbol of Častolars family, what was a disc, which the warriors used to have on the bottom end of their spears to protect their hands. Silver disc on red field was again on helmet. The first owner of manor Jan Častolar died in year 1560 and was buried in church in Křemže . Father’s possession owned then together till year 1574 his sons. By entry from 3. January 1575 was manor divided in these portions: 1. part took over Častolar Dlouhoveský of Dlouhá Ves and Chlum. To it belonged fortress Chlum with facilities and official in both Chlum and Lhotka. 2. part obtained Oldřich Častolar of Dlouhá Ves and Chlumeček. To manor belonged fortress Chlumeček with accessories, official in Chlumeček and part of official in Křemže. 3. part was Duškovský mill and portion of lands and remaining 33 servants in Křemže. It was taken over by Jaroslav Častolar, also called from Dlouhá Ves. 4. part comprised from possession out of region Křemže: courts Koroseky, Závraty and Čertyně with official.
 Court in Chlum No.1 in year 1935
It was ruled by Jindřich Častolar of Dlouhá Ves. In agreement was settled that in case that one of brothers wants to sell his property, the other brothers had right to be first buyers. This was done in order to keep family property out of strangers.

Owner Častolar as regent of Krumlov manor saved great possession. He died without any posterity and Chlum manor came into his brother Oldřich at Chlumeček, who later started to write "of Chlum". After him inherited Chlum and Chlumeček his son Alexandr Častolar. On 18. February 1626 is manor divided again, Chlum gets Jindřich and his brother Leopold obtains Chlumeček. Jindřich in Chlum died in year 1643 and his son Oldřich Lukáš, who was not too successful manager, sold Chlum’s court to neighborly Eggenberks of Č. Krumlov on 3. May 1668. That is how ended more than century long ruling of family Častolars Dlouhovesští at Chlum. Jan Kristián of Eggenberk connected Chlum Krumlov manor. When the Eggenberks died out in year 1719 inherited Chlum the Schwarzenberks and in their hands remained court till land reformation in year 1923.

Chlum - panoramic view from Křemže, photo: Jan Kříž

Life in village :

Life of inhabitants in Chlum and its vicinity used to be dependent on natural conditions. Agriculture land enabled only modest living to small farmers, several families found work in lord’s courts in Chlum,
 Chlum, court No.21, photo: Jan Kříž
in Lhotka and Chlumeček, others were working in forest or produced wooden tools as platters, brooms, rakes, stirrers, wooden shoes etc. Lumberjacks cut in summer woods and leveled cut trunks into piles, in winter carried it from forests to roads. When there was no labor, rode people for it abroad, mainly to Austrian countries and Saxony. They were leaving on spring after celebration of St. Josef and were returning at the end of September for celebration of St. Václav. Families of workers and craftspeople working abroad had better living than others.

During existence of iron works in Adolfov and after its dissolution in factory producing hooped furniture (today’s company Artypa) by Křemežský brook under Holubov in second half of 19 Century were some families from Chlum employed here.

Around Chlum was no industry even during the end of 30’s of 19 Century,
Chlum, lime tree - important tree Natural protected area Blanský forest, photo: Jan Kříž  
and so inhabitants made here living again by work in agriculture and forestry. Many inhabitants had to seek mercenary work in courts and greater farms. These workers lived in ”ratejna”, what was one larger room in court, where in each corner lived one family. Their board was ensured by one cook. Unlikely other workers employed at court they had year-long labor.

Even village Chlum located in valley of brook had enough water, above located farms and specially surrounding villages suffered from its lack. To cover need of family water had to be imported. Aquaduct was founded in year 1929 and it was constructed for Chlum, Křemže and Chlumeček. It was built on strong spring above Chlum about 300 m under saddle of Blanský forest. From collecting tank in altitude 800 m. above sea level flows high quality water across valley to water reservoir at Chlumečský hill, which is in altitude 580 m. above sea level. Longitude of duct is 5,5 km. Main diversions are in Chlum, Křemže, toward Mříč and under waterworks to Chlumeček.
When due to construction of village there was not enough water, the duct was strengthen in 1986 by drilled springs by Vackovský mill, from which is water replaced by pumps to tank.

As one of not many villages in region could Chlum take part on using electric energy. Current was led into village in year 1926 from power plant, built under Dívčí Kámen on Křemežský brook by ing. Zdeněk Stibral. Public lighting was in village installed in 1928.

Chlum - chapel, photo: Jan Kříž Chlum, chapel with monument of soldiers fallen in WWI, photo: Jan Kříž


 Chlum - Cihelna with Beer tent, photo: Jan Kříž
As a separate village existed Chlum since year 1888 when village Křemže was divided into four self administrating parts. To Chlum belonged the settlements Loučej and Lhotka. Then Municipal office in Chlum lapsed according to decision of regional offices in 1980 after repeated connection to village Křemže.

In village was in year 1972 in cooperation with inhabitants built grocery and assorted goods store, which served on its purpose till year 1997. In year 1977 was by self-help of locals constructed Kindergarten, which till today cares for coming generation from Chlum and its surrounding. Since the beginning of 19 century is available Local library. In the 80’s it contained 3000 books.
Chlum, building on common, photo: Jan Kříž  
Even today as branch of library in Křemže in cooperation with regional library in Český Krumlov it provides once a week service for pupils, local inhabitants and summer guests. In year 1973 was over a valley of Křemežský brook at place called "na Cihelně" in cooperation with local fire brigade constructed culture and sport area, which is functional even today and which is well known for its summer parties and concerts.

Traffic situation in village is pretty fair. Greater distance to train station in Mříč or Holubov is compared by bus line Křemže - Brloh. Since year 1973 is most of local roads paved. Since year 2000 is in great part of village installed gas, reconstruction and completion of drainage with it connection onto water cleaning station. Future of village is proved by newly built houses at south-east side of Chlum.

Local habits:

Till today remain among inhabitants some old habits and during the year are celebrated traditional feasts, as Carnival, Easter holidays and building of the May pole.

Chlum - new building in south-east part of village, photo: Jan Kříž

Further information :

St. Michael archangel's church in Křemže
St. Voršila’s chapel in Křemže
Castles, Chateaux, Monasteries and Other Memorials in the Český Krumlov Region
Aristocratic Families in the Český Krumlov Region
Click-sensitive map of the Microregion Podkletí
Microregion Podkletí
Microregion Podkletí - Pictorial guide

© Sdružení Oficiálního informačního systému Český Krumlov, 1999
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