It is useful to divide the Český Krumlov region into several native geographical units - micro-regions in order to understand problems of sites of a fortified settlement and uplands settlements better. The whole character and modelling of the terrain influenced farmers lives during the Primeval Times. It also concerned building of primeval settlements.
First of all, the settlement area along the Vltava River between the towns of Český Krumlov and České Budějovice should be mentioned. The Vltava River flows through the deep canyon valley with steep slopes and numerous rocky formations. The stream itself creates many promontories and plateau suitable for construction of strategy settlements. A newly discovered uplands settlement is situated in the promontory high above the Vltava River near the village of Záluží. Some pieces of pottery from the late Bronze Age (1750 - 1550 BC) were discovered there. The fortification was not identified. There is the Celtic settlement of Třísov up the Vltava River and a site of a fortified settlement from the late and early Bronze Age in the area of the mediaeval Dívčí Kámen Castle (Girls´ Stone Castle) near the village of Mříč (Site of a fortified settlement at Dívčí Kámen from the Bronze Age).
Archaeologists had not drawn enough attention to the micro-region of Křemežská valley basin in Blanský Forest for a long time. The micro-region is very original and remarkable. From this point of view it is unparalleled in South Bohemia. The valley basin is closed with mountainous terrain of Blanský Forest from the north and north-west, Hill Kluk from the north-east and Hill Kleť (1,084 m) from the south and south-west. The valley basin area opened to the east (in the direction of the Vltava stream) has not been archaeologically searched properly yet. The Slavic settlement near Kuklov, stately fortified, is known from uplands localities. Archaeological discoveries: a pottery whorl dating from the early Halstat Period (approximately 600 - 470 BC) comes from the top of Hill Kleť. A simple fortification made of stone situated on Hill Stržíšek near Brloh was the last newly discovered and searched site of a fortified settlement. It is situated only several hundreds metres from the Slavic settlement near Kuklov. It dates back to the early Halstat Period (picture 2).
The valley basin (the river basin of the Chvalšinský Stream and Polečnice River), where the town and castle of Český Krumlov are situated, ranks among other micro-regions with primeval uplands localities. Blanský Forest marks the boundary from the north, Foothills area from the south, Rožmberk highland from the south-east. The area is abound in raw material, for example, graphite used from the early Primeval Times. Uplands localities are situated on cone stacks rising at the foot of Hill Kleť. The uplands settlement in Vyšný near the town of Český Krumlov was built in the late Bronze Age, the uplands settlement near the village of Lazec dates back to the early Halstat Period. The locality of Ohrádka near Křenov (picture 3) has not been dated so far. The site of a fortified settlement on the Hill Raziberg near Boletice (picture 4) from the early Halstat Period. However, the site of a fortified settlement of Kladenské Rovné (picture 5) with two fortified mounds made of stone has not been dated so far. Both of them are situated on hills right in the centre of micro-region. Signs of settlement discovered in space of the Český Krumlov castle and chateau (The Český Krumlov castle knoll settlement during the Primeval Times) come from the late Bronze Age, early Halstat Period (connected with contemporaneous localities near Spolí, Přísečná, Lazce and Raziberkg), and several pottery fragments from the early Lathen Period. The archaeological probing was done in the promontory of Dlouhé Hradiště near the village of Přísečná. Some certain signs of man-made fortification with evidence of intensive settlement during the early Halstat Period were proved. The uplands settlement near Spolí ( picture 7 ) was also newly identified. It had been built on the top above the river basin during the early Halstat Period. It has been the most southern uplands locality discovered in that micro-region so far.
The middle stream of the Malše River is the last micro-region in the Český Krumlov region where primeval sites of a fortified settlement and uplands settlements are situated. There are discoveries of Hrádek Velešín - Stone Tower and St. Jan (on the place of mediaeval Velešín Castle) with some discoveries from the Bronze Age. The site of a fortified settlement of Chlum nad Malší (more southern) has not been dated so far. Some remains of mounds have been preserved up the Černá River on the top of Hradiště near Kaplice, next to the village of BlanskoBlansko (picture 8). Its exact age has not been determined so far.
The uplands settlement near Záluží.
It is situated 1,000 metres north-west of the village centre, on the Vltava River right-side. The triangle-shaped promontory headland inclines to the south. There is a deep-cut river bed with nameless gutter. There is a narrow promontory headland in the west. Very steep north slopes fall into the Vltava River Basin. They are made of discontinuous rocky formations. The surface is very smooth. The fortification has not been proved. J. Valkony was the first who pointed out the possibility of uplands settlement existence while doing surface researches. He discovered a collection of primeval and early mediaeval pottery. In the spring 1999 the research work proved the settlement during the late Bronze Age.
The uplands settlement near Přísečná.
The promontory of Dlouhé Hradiště on the Vltava River left-side, 1,100 metres east of the railway stop of Domoradice. The wooded promontory in the shape of an elongated triangle with the main axis north-south is situated above the confluence of the Vltava River and Tovární Stream. The promorntory is accessible from the north towards the head in the south and then it slopes down. There is a dividing rocky formation over the ditch. The area is protected by steep rocky hills. The man-made fortification has not been discovered. However, some discoveries of holes - remains of piles were found on the promontory edge. It had probably been accessible from the north. In 1996 some material was discovered in the field during the surface research done by P. Zavřel and J. Michálek. The archaeological probing continued that discovery in June 1999. Some pile holes and altogether 764 pieces of pottery from the early Halstat Period were discovered.
Hradiště near Jaronín, the district of
Hill Stržíšek, 950 metres north-west of Brloh centre, the Brloh Stream left-side. It is a gentle long hill with the main axis east-west and smaller pre-top at the north-east foot of the hill. The central top plateau slopes down towards the south to south-west. The top of hill is situated in the north. There are several rocky outcrops in the north and a sizeable rocky balcony in the north-east. A natural ravine among rocks creates " natural gate ". A very simple mound made of stone, up to 1,3 metres high was discovered. The mound is preserved in the south best. It is connected to the rocky outcrop in the north-west, disappears in the east and again connected to the terrain edge. The terrain is the steepest there. In the autumn 2000 the archaeological probing was done there - altogether 30 micro-probing in the whole area inside the fortification. A collection of pottery dating from the early Halstat Period was discovered in the probing done in the south outskirts of fortification.
The uplands settlement near Vyšný.
The district of Český Krumlov. Former Hill Vyšný, today a 500-metre stone pit north-west of Vyšný. It used to be a symetrical hill emanated from Hill Kleť towards the south, detached by the saddle back from Hill Vyšný. A nameless stream washes west slopes. At present the locality is completely mined off, and destroyed by the lime pit. The fortification has not been discovered. A collection of pottery dating from the late Bronze Age had been obtained by amateurs before it was destroyed.
The uplands settlement near Lazec.
Hill Háj, 900 metres east of the village centre of Lazec. The hill emanates from Hill Kleť towards the south. It is detached by a 30-metre deep saddle back. There is the Hučnice Stream at the south foot of the hill, and a nameless gutter in the west. A smaller plateau was created in the north slope as well as in the south-east. There are also old shafts of graphite pit. Any fortifications have not been discovered by archaeologists so far. There might have been some bulwarks, for example, wooden palisades. In 1980s a cultural layer (40 cm) was discovered by amateurs in the north-west of the plateau. A collection of pottery and some clay weights dating from the early Halstat Period were discovered in it.
The uplands settlement near Křenov.
Hill Ohrádka is situated 1,500 metres west north-west of the village of Lazec, 2,000 metres north north-east of the village of Křenov. The hill emanates from the south slope of Hill Kleť and it is detached by a deeper saddle back. The main axis of the top is north north-east - south south-east. West and east slopes are covered with broken rock. There is a plateau on its top. It has a shape of an irregular oblong ground plan. The Křenov Stream flows along the east foot of the hill. The west slope is about 50 metres below the top (there are some remains of carriage road). Two relicts of corner objects made of stone walls can be seen in the south-east slope. Some remains of the wall (7 x 10m) made of stone are situated on the plateau. All preserved terrain building elements may have been the remains of the mediaeval redoubt. No primeval fortification or mediaeval fortification have not been discovered yet. However, the locality ranks among sites of a fortified settlement. In 1982 they managed to obtain a small collection of graphite pottery from the north side of plateau. It was not dated. In 1997 several pottery fragments and small clay clods were discovered during the archaeological research done on the top and its surroundings.
The uplands settlement near Boletice.
Hill Raziberg is situated 850 metres east of St. Nicholas Church in Boletice. Its slopes are covered with broken stone, and the top is slightly flat. There is a little rockery on the top. Hradec links up with a smaller top in the north north-west, and it is detached by a 15-metre deep saddle back. The Dolanský Stream flows along the west and north foot of the hill. The site of a fortified settlement has a shape of an irregular circle and it is fortified by two parallel circle mounds with forward moats. The mounds consist stone and clay. Their height in the east is 3 metres as well as the width. The construction of bulwark has not been discovered yet. It remains unknown. The original access was situated in the east where mounds are simply broken. However, its construction and type are not known. The site of a fortified settlement had already been known in the first half of 19th century. In 1930s it was searched by K. Brdlík and L. Franz, and in 1950s by archaeologists from the Prague National Museum. They searched the grave-mound formation at the foot of the east mound. The origin of the fortification dates back to the Middle Ages. A numerous collection of pottery dating from the late Halstat Period comes from the research done on the top of the hill.
The uplands settlement near Kladenské Rovné.
Hill Radish, 1,200 metres west of the village centre, the Polečnice River left-side. The hill with a long top and main axis south-west in the direction towards the south-west slopes down gently and creates a long narrow plateau. Steep slopes are made of broken stone. The Škeblice Stream flows along the north foot of the hill. There are some rocky walls in the north-east. The fortification defines triangle disposition around the top. A couple of parallel mounds block the access from the south-west. The mounds are slightly bent but do not reach rocks in the east. The fortification is broken in the west. The length of mounds is 110 metres, inside height 1.5 metres, outside height 1.8 metres. The distance between them is about 10 metres. The construction of bulwark has not been discovered, as well as the original access into the fortified area. However, the mounds are made of stone. The locality had been registered by L. Franz during the pre-war period. In 1998 a smaller collection of pottery dating from the Primeval Times was discovered.
The uplands settlement near Spolí.
The district of Přídolí. Hill Vraný. The uplands settlement is situated 1,250 metres south-west of the settlement of Slupenec, the Vltava River right-side. The hill with a long base and oval flat top. West slopes fall down towards the Vltava River, they are steep and rocky. There is a pre-top in the south detached by a not very deep saddle back. A small plateau is situated in the north about 40 metres below the top. It continuous in the north direction (about 900 metres) and it is closed with Papouščí Rock (Parrot Rock). There is a low terrace made of stone mainly preserved in the west. The fortification has not been proved. In the spring 1999 a small probing was done. A collection of pottery from the early Halstat Period was discovered.
Further information :
Archaeological Researches in the Český Krumlov Region
The Primeval Settlement in the Český Krumlov Region