The archaeological research of house No. 15 in Svornosti Square
 

 The whole view of house No.15 in Svornosti Square
House No. 15 in Svornosti Square ranks among the oldest built-up space in the town. Its owner´s name is known from the year 1459, but there had been a citizen house with a half-ground cellar in its front in the late 13th century. Originally, it may have been built out of timber on the stone underpinning. However, it was rebuilt several times during the Gothic period. In the 14th century the cellars and ground floor were made of stone and mortar. A cellar in the front left part , arcade remainders behind the cellar and perhaps another cellar in the front right part have been preserved since that period.

The archaeological research of the house interior was done by the employees of the Český Krumlov District National History and Geography Museum, and was connected with its restoration work in 1993 - 1994. Seven probing (fifty square metres) were searched in its cellars and ground floor. The most interesting and important archaeological situation was discovered in probing No. 7 on the ground floor right part. The archaeologists demonstrated several development phases of building up by documentation. The plan proportion of the front house - a cellar in its left part and a ground floor in its right part have been preserved since the 13th century.

Besides the oldest building (in the picture - phase A), a beaten earthen floor on the ground floor has been preserved. The earthen floor is a remainder of the building destroyed in a fire in the 13th century. The floor was covered by a 5 - 10 cm thick dark burnt layer containing a large number of pottery fragments dating from the 13th century. There had been a half-ground cellar in the front left part with a wall construction built out of timber (similar to the cellar in Panská Street No. 20) and a beam ceiling.


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Pic. 5

Pic 2. - The house basement during the archaeological research. Original arcades, the remainder of the oldest stone phase (phase B) can be seen in the background. In the Middle Ages the arcades were opened towards the courtyard at the back of a house plot. Photo: Michal Ernée.

Pic. 5 - The beaten earthen floor - the oldest part of the house (phase A) dating from the second half of the 13th century. Photo: Michal Ernée

The beaten floor was damaged while the north wall of the cellar was built (in the picture - phase B). After the oldest building (or its part) had become extinct, the plot in the square was used again. The first stone phase of the house (phase B) is said to have been evident in the late 13th century or the early 14th century.

The cellar was rebuilt again in the same century. Its flat beam ceiling was pulled down and replaced with a stone vault (in the picture - phase C).


Pic 3.

Pic 4.
Pic. 3 - The ground plan of house No. 15 in Svornosti Square. The Gothic cellar walls, a ground floor and single archaeological probing are marked. Drawing: Michal Ernée.

Pic. 4 - Three development phases of the front part of house No. 15 in Svornosti Square in the second half of the 13th - 14th century. Phase A (at the top) - a wooden construction, a cellar built out of timber with a flat beam ceiling, a ground floor built out of timber. Phase B (in the middle) - a walled cellar with a flat beam ceiling, a walled ground floor. Phase C (at the bottom) - a stone cellar on the ground floor, the cellar with a stone vault. Drawing: Michal Ernée

A pottery fragment coming from a vessel ornamented with a fine multiplied wave "crest of wave". The fragment dates back to the 8th or 9th century. It was the first evidence of the town settlement before the first half of the 13th century (the Primeval and The Early Middle Ages settlement in the area of the town of Český Krumlov).

The fragment of a baked-clay tile ornamented with the female eagle motive dating from the late 13th century, The Collection Fund of the Český Krumlov District National History and Geography Museum.   The tile with the female eagle motive (according to B. Nechvátal).

The unique discovery - a fragment of a relief ornamented baked-clay tile is closely connected with the oldest house phases. The tile is ornamented with a female eagle motive dating from the late 13th century. Floors made of relief ornamented or glazed tiles are known from monasteries or mansions. Such a discovery in a citizen house is very surprising.

A large collection of Renaissance green glazed stove tiles comes from the basement excavation of the north peripheral wall rebuilt in the Baroque style. The stove (drawing documentation) was built in the 16th century, and it is a very nice heating example. It used to be the standard equipment in every Renaissance citizen household.

The Renaissance green-glazed stove tiles and decorative components of tile stoves ( 16th century ) from the archaeological research done in house No. 15 in Svornosti Square. The Collection Fund of the Regional Museum in the town of Český Krumlov. Drawing documentation of the Renaissance tiled stove created according to a large collection of stove tiles coming from house No. 15 in Svornosti Square. Drawing: Michal Ernée. The Renaissance green-glazed stove tiles and decorative components of tile stoves ( 16th century ) from the archaeological research done in house No. 15 in Svornosti Square. The Collection Fund of the Regional Museum in the town of Český Krumlov.
The Renaissance green-glazed stove tiles and decorative components of tile stoves ( 16th century ) from the archaeological research done in house No. 15 in Svornosti Square. The Collection Fund of the Regional Museum in the town of Český Krumlov.

The archaeologists managed to achieve another surprising discovery in the house basement. A ground-plan of an extinct stove made of baked-clay tiles was hidden in the north-west corner of its left back room under the floor. The stove dates back to the early Modern Period. Bakers were the only people who needed such a stove between 1459 and the late 17th century. The baker called Kunc lived there in 1540. The baker and Český Krumlov alderman Mates Plankl from 1540. After his death (1576) his son Vilém took over, and continued baking until 1599. The baker craft was over in house No.15 in Svornosti Square by his death. The stove was built and used by any of the house owners between 1536 -1599 . Another owner was probably a scribe and a wine merchandiser. The stove was not functional any longer and was demolished in a short time.

The portrait of the beard man on the Mates Plankl´s (a baker) tomb stone. Photo: Michal Ernée   The remainders of the baked stove uncovered in the basement of house No. 15 in Svornosti Square dating from the 16th century. Photo: Michal Ernée.

Mates Plankl (a baker) was buried at the cemetery near St. Vitas´ Church in January 1576. A granity tomb slab is still preserved in the wall of Kaplanka (No. 159 in Horní Street). There is a relief figure of a beard man holding a baker´s guild mark. It may be Mates Plankl, an owner and a man who used to bake in the stove and sit by the tiled stove, which remainders were discovered by the archaeologists in the interior of house No. 15 in Svornosti Square.

(me)

Further information :
The archaeological researches in the town of Český Krumlov
The archaeological research of the medieval town of Český Krumlov



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